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Intonation implies variations of pitch, force of utterance and tempo. One of the components of intonation pitch and stress sections (pre-head, head, nucleus, tail). Nucleus is the last stressed syllable of the intonation pattern.

1. The Law Fall - The voice falls from the low pitch level to the bottom of the pitch. M.: Statements - Final. categoric, calm. Special q-s – calm, serious, flat. Imperatives – calm, unemotional, serious. Exclamatories – calm, unsurprised.

2. The Low Rise. The voice rises from a very low to a medium pitch level. M.: Statements – non-categ, non-final, enc further conversation. Special q-s – interest, sympathy. General q-s – interest. Imperatives – calmly warning, soothing. Exclamatories – calm acknowledgement.

3. The Fall-Rise. The voice first falls from a medium/high to rather low pitch level, and then rises to a medium pitch. M.: 1) Instead of the low-rising tone to intensify the significance of communicative centre. 2) In statements expr correction, hurt feelings, concern. 3) In direct address – to draw attention of the listener

4.The Mid-Level. It’s pronounced on the medium level; the voice neither rises nor falls. Used in non-final intonation groups, expressing non-finality without any impression of expectancy. Used in: 1) Parenthesis at the beginning of inton group 2) Adverbials of time and place -/-, e.g. on >Sunday we shall be at home 3) Adverbial clauses preceding the principal one e.g. If you want to have a >rest, go to the country.


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